Monday, July 16, 2018

Agile Approach and PMI PMBOK

Decision Requirement:

  • Projects with heavy constraints, inexperienced and dispersed teams, large risks, generally clear up-front requirements, and a fairly rigid completion date are best done using a predictive approach. 
  • In contrast, projects with less rigid constraints, experienced and preferably co-located teams, smaller risks, unclear requirements, and more flexible scheduling would be more compatible with an agile approach.
Scrum includes three main roles for project participants:
  • Product owner: The person responsible for the business value of the project and for deciding what work to do and in what order, as documented in the product backlog.
  • ScrumMaster: The person who ensures that the team is productive, facilitates the daily Scrum, enables close cooperation across all roles and functions, and removes barriers that prevent the team from being effective. ScrumMasters have authority over the process but not the people on the team. They must be comfortable surrendering control to the product owner and team. Some experts suggest that traditional project managers do not make great ScrumMasters. 
  • Scrum team or development team: A cross-functional team of five to nine people who organize themselves and the work to produce the desired results for each sprint. A sprint normally lasts two to four weeks, during which specific work must be completed and made ready for review.
In Scrum, an artifact is a useful object created by people. An artifact can be called a deliverable in other project management approaches. The following three artifacts are created with Scrum:
  • Product backlog: A single list of features prioritized by business value. The highest priority items should be broken down in enough detail for the team to estimate the effort involved in developing them. Some experts suggest scheduling about ten workdays for each item.
  • Sprint backlog: The highest-priority items from the product backlog to be completed within a sprint. The Scrum team breaks down the highest-priority items into smaller tasks that take about 16 hours to complete.
  • Burndown chart: Shows the cumulative work remaining in a sprint on a day-by-day basis.
The ScrumMaster facilitates four ceremonies or meetings when using the Scrum methodology: 
  • Sprint planning session: A meeting with the team to select a set of work from the product backlog to deliver during a sprint. This meeting normally takes four hours to a full day.
  • Daily Scrum: A short meeting for the development team to share progress and challenges and plan work for the day. Ideally the team members are in the same place, the meeting usually lasts no more than 15  minutes, and it is held at the same time and place each day. If that is not possible, teams can use videoconferencing to have short virtual meetings. The ScrumMaster asks what work has been done since yesterday, what work is planned for today, and what impediments or stumbling blocks might hamper the team’s efforts. The ScrumMaster documents these stumbling blocks and works with key stakeholders to resolve them after the daily Scrum. Many teams use the term “issues” for items that do not have to be solved in the next 24 hours and “blockers” for items that need to be immediately addressed. This allows a SrumMaster to maintain focus on highest priority items (blockers) first and then manage the resolution of other issues over the next day or so.
  • Sprint reviews: A meeting in which the team demonstrates to the product owner what it has completed during the sprint.
  • Sprint retrospectives: A meeting in which the team looks for ways to improve the product and the process based on a review of the actual performance of the development team.
Scrum framework in terms of the project management process groups:
  • Initiating:
    • Determine roles
    • Decide how many sprints will compose each release and the scope of software to deliver
  • Planning:
    • Create product backlog
    • Create sprint backlog
    • Create release backlog
    • Plan work each day in the daily Scrum
    • Document stumbling blocks in a list
  • Executing:
    • Complete tasks each day during sprints
    • Produce a shippable product at the end of each sprin
  • Monitoring and Controlling: 
    • Resolve issues and blockers
    • Create and update burndown chart
    • Demonstrate the completed product during the sprint review meeting 
  • Closing:
    • Reflect on how to improve the product and process during the sprint reflection meeting 



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